Updated: Jun 14
In our world today, where pandemics, climate change, financial crises, and rising geopolitical tensions characterize the global arena, building resilience is more important than ever. Resilience, defined as the capacity to absorb shocks and recover from disturbances, requires a focus on inclusion to ensure a sustainable future. Initially rooted in ecology and engineering, resilience has evolved to encompass social systems, including marine communities. Some scholars are of the view that building social resilience requires building the capacity of communities to manage, respond and recover from social, economic and environmental stressors such as climate change, overfishing, pollution and habitat destruction while maintaining their social structures, cultural identity and ecosystem service. By virtue of their geographical location, marine communities face numerous challenges, making the development of social resilience crucial for their survival and long-term sustainability.
In the following points, I highlight approaches to building social resilience in marine communities.
Strengthening social networks:
As put succinctly by Richelle Goodrich, “there is strength in numbers, yes, but even more so in collective goodwill. For those endeavours are supported by mighty forces unseen”. Building strong social networks and community ties plays a vital role in enhancing resilience in marine communities. These connections help in building trust, collaboration, knowledge and resource sharing. Research shows that communities with strong social networks are better equipped to cope with environmental stressors. While social networks can have downsides and may not address power and equity issues adequately, utilizing community-based organizations and participatory management can help strengthen social ties.
Promoting participatory decision-making:
Participatory decision-making empowers marine communities to have a say in policies that affect them directly. By involving communities in decision-making processes, the resulting policies align more closely with their values and priorities. Trust-building between communities and government institutions through participatory management can lead to more efficient conservation and management practices. However, power dynamics and the inclusivity of the process can influence the success of participatory decision-making.
Enhancing local knowledge and skills:
Local knowledge and skills are invaluable for building social resilience in marine communities. This includes traditional knowledge passed down from generations as well as contemporary education and training. By understanding regional ecosystems, climatic patterns and historical events, communities can anticipate and address shocks and pressures effectively. However, there are challenges to transmitting traditional knowledge, such as generational gaps, migration and cultural erosion.
Developing diverse livelihood strategies
Diversifying livelihood strategies is crucial to reduce vulnerability to environmental and economic shocks. Overreliance on a single livelihood source, like fishing, leaves communities vulnerable to environmental and economic shocks. Developing alternative livelihoods, such as tourism, or investing in other sectors like agriculture or forestry, can help communities reduce risks and generate income from different sources. The challenges to this include resistance from communities valuing their traditional way of life, limited market access, inadequate infrastructure and limited financial resources.
Strengthening institutional arrangements:
Effective institutional structures are essential for building social resilience in marine communities. These structures encompass laws, regulations, and administrative arrangements that facilitate community-based management and conservation. Equitable access to marine resources and community involvement in decision-making processes are crucial components. Unfortunately, corruption, a lack of political will, and inadequate funding can hinder the effectiveness of institutional arrangements.
Conducting comprehensive risk assessments helps marine communities identify vulnerabilities and develop informed strategies. Assessments should encompass both human-induced dangers like pollution and coastal development and natural hazards such as storms and sea-level rise.
Infrastructure and ecosystem-based approaches:
Designing resilient infrastructure and adopting ecosystem-based approaches are vital for protecting marine communities against hazards. Infrastructure should be able to withstand shocks, while ecosystem-based approaches, such as green infrastructure and coastal restoration, provide natural protection.
Social and economic support:
Implementing social and economic support measures assists communities in recovering from disasters and managing ongoing stressors. Financial assistance, mental health services, and community support networks can facilitate recovery and resilience.
Education and awareness:
Developing education and awareness programs enables community members to understand risks, appreciate the importance of resilience, and take the necessary action to protect themselves and their communities.
Monitoring and evaluation:
Continuous monitoring and evaluation allow for the assessment of resilience-building strategies in coastal communities. Ongoing assessment of hazards, vulnerabilities, and resilience indicators, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions and governance structures, helps refine and adapt strategies over time.
Building social resilience in marine communities is imperative for their survival and long-term sustainability. A comprehensive and integrated approach is necessary, considering the diverse stressors and challenges faced by these communities. The effectiveness of resilience-building strategies relies on addressing power dynamics, encouraging participation, and ensuring inclusivity in decision-making processes. The framework should be adaptable, context-specific, flexible, and iterative, accommodating the unique characteristics of each community and its changing environment. By prioritizing social resilience, marine communities can thrive amidst global challenges and secure a sustainable future.